A Collaboration Among the 12 Reserve Banks of the FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM. Learn more

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  • 2021 Report on Nonemployer Firms

    Businesses with no employees other than the owner often turned to personal funds in response to financial challenges during the pandemic. These nonemployers were less likely than employer firms to seek pandemic-related emergency funding and less likely to be approved.

  • 2021 Report on Firms Owned by People of Color

    Firms of color were more likely to experience financial and operational challenges stemming from the pandemic. These challenges are particularly salient given the important role business ownership plays in wealth building and employ­ment in communities of color

  • State of the Older Entrepreneur During COVID-19

    Older entrepreneurs are the majority of small business owners, yet they faced outsized challenges this year, including business closures, depletion of personal assets, and weakened revenue streams. These impacts were even more pronounced for older entrepreneurs of color.

  • Report on Employer Firms

    Small businesses continue to face significant challenges amid the COVID-19 pandemic, including weak demand, heightened expenses, and limited credit availability. Nearly one-third of firms say they’re unlikely to survive without additional government aid until sales recover.



  • Double Jeopardy: Covid-19’s Concentrated Health and Wealth Effects in Black Communities

    Counties with the highest density of COVID-19 cases are also areas with the highest concentration of Black businesses and networks. Our analysis shows stark PPP coverage gaps in these hardest hit communities.

  • Can Small Firms Weather the Economic Effects of Covid-19?

    We examine how firms are likely to weather the impacts of COVID-19 by unpacking small firms’ financial resiliency. Most firms would need to take significant cost-cutting measures or borrow if faced with sustained revenue loss.